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22-25 mars 2012













  pavillons de complaisance

  Dernier ajout : 18 octobre 2013.   73 Articles
 

Il existe plusieurs définitions des pavillons de complaisance :

- fondamentalement : Etat accordant à des navires étrangers une nationalité fictive permettant à leurs armateurs d’échapper aux lois de leur pays.

- CNUCED : Etat d’immatriculation des navires dont les armateurs sont établis à l’étranger. Cette définition utilisée par la CNUCED a le mérite d’être objective.

- les pavillons bis offrent souvent des avantages comparables aux pavillons de complaisances en matière sociale notamment.

- ITF : "The ITF takes into account the degree to which foreign owned vessels are registered and fly the country flag, as well as the following additional criteria, when declaring a register an FOC :

* The ability and willingness of the flag state to enforce international minimum social standards on its vessels, including respect for basic human and trade union rights, freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining with bona fide trade unions.

* The social record as determined by the degree of ratification and enforcement of ILO Conventions and Recommendations.

* The safety and environmental record as revealed by the ratification and enforcement of IMO Conventions and revealed by port state control inspections, deficiencies and detentions.

The ITF believes there should be a ’ genuine link’ between the real owner of a vessel and the flag the vessel flies, in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). There is no "genuine link" in the case of FOC registries.

Some of these registers have poor safety and training standards, and place no restriction on the nationality of the crew. Sometimes, because of language differences, seafarers are not able to communicate effectively with each other, putting safety and the efficient operation of the ship at risk."

list : 32 flags : Antigua and Barbuda , Bahamas , Barbados , Belize , Bermuda (UK) , Bolivia , Burma , Cambodia , Cayman Islands , Comoros , Cyprus , Equatorial Guinea , French International Ship Register (FIS) , German International Ship Register (GIS) , Georgia , Gibraltar (UK) , Honduras , Jamaica , Lebanon , Liberia , Malta , Marshall Islands (USA) , Mauritius , Mongolia , Netherlands Antilles North Korea , Panama , Sao Tome and Príncipe , St Vincent , Sri Lanka , Tonga , Vanuatu .

- L’Union européenne publie une liste noire des pavillons avec graduation du risque à partir des détentions dans les ports (Paris MOU) :
EU Black List of Flags Effective from July 1st 2007
- VERY HIGH RISK North Korea , Albania , Bolivia ,

- HIGH RISK Comoros , Georgia , Slovakia , ST. Kitts & Nevis , Syria , Honduras ,

- MEDIUM TO HIGH RISK ST. Vincent & Grenadines , Cambodia , Lebanon ,

- MEDIUM RISK Brazil , Egypt , Belize , Morocco .





 
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